1.9.0 (2018-08-25)

  • Allow the creation of Certificates with multiple OUs in their subject (command-line only).
  • Fix issues with handling CAs with a password on the command-line.
  • Fix handling of certificates with no CommonName and/or no x509 extensions.
  • Add support for displaying Signed Certificate Timestamps (SCT) Lists, as described in RFC 6962, section 3.3.
  • Add limited support for displaying Certificate Policies, as described in RFC 5280, section 4.2.14 and RFC 3647.
  • Correctly display extensions with an OID unknown to django-ca or even cryptography.
  • Properly escape x509 extensions to prevent any injection attacks.
  • Django 2.1 is now fully supported.
  • Fix example command to generate a CSR (had a stray ‘/’).
  • Run test-suite with template debugging enabled to catch silently skipped template errors.


  • Base the Docker image on python:3-alpine (instead of python:3), yielding a much smaller image (~965MB -> ~235MB).
  • Run complete test-suite in a separate build stage when building the image.
  • Provide uwsgi.ini for fast deployments with the uwsgi protocol.
  • Add support for passing additional parameters to uWSGI using the DJANGO_CA_UWSGI_PARAMS environment variable.
  • Create user/group with a predefined uid/gid of 9000 to allow better sharing of containers.
  • Add /usr/share/django-ca/ as named volume, allowing a setup where an external webserver serves static files.
  • Add documentation on how to run the container in combination with an external webserver.
  • Add documentation on how to run the container as a different uid/gid.

1.8.0 (2018-07-08)

  • Add Django signals to important events to let users add custom actions (such as email notifications etc.) to those events (fixes #39).
  • Provide a Docker container for fast deployment of django-ca.
  • Add the CA_CUSTOM_APPS setting to let users that use django-ca as a standalone project add custom apps, e.g. to register signals.
  • Make the otherName extension actually usable and tested (see PR47)
  • Add the smartcardLogon and msKDC extended key usage types. They are needed for some AD and OpenLDAP improvements (see PR46)
  • Improve compatability with newer idna versions (".com" now also throws an error).
  • Drop support for Django 1.8 and Django 1.10.
  • Improve support for yet-to-be-released Django 2.1.
  • Fix admin view of certificates with no subjectAltName.

1.7.0 (2017-12-14)

  • Django 2.0 is now fully supported. This release still supports Django 1.8, 1.10 and 1.11.
  • Add support for the tlsFeature extension.
  • Do sanity checks on the “pathlen” attribute when creating Certificate Authorities.
  • Add sanity checks when creating CAs:
    • When creating an intermediate CA, check the pathlen attribute of the parent CA to make sure that the resulting CA is not invalid.
    • Refuse to add a CRL or OCSP service to root CAs. These attributes are not meaningful there.
  • Massively update documentation for the command-line interface.
  • CAs can now be identified using name or serial (previously: only by serial) in CA_OCSP_URLS.
  • Make fab init_demo a lot more useful by signing certificates with the client CA and include CRL and OCSP links.
  • Run fab init_demo and documentation generation through Travis-CI.
  • Always display all extensions in the django admin interface.
  • NameConstraints are now delimited using a , instead of a ;, for consistency with other parameters and so no bash special character is used.


  • Check for permissions when downloading certificates from the admin interface. Previously, users without admin interface access but without permissions to access certificates, where able to guess the URL and download public keys.
  • Add a missing migration.
  • Fix the value of the crlDistributionPoints x509 extension when signing certificates with Python2.
  • The Content-Type header of CRL responses now defaults to the correct value regardless of type (DER or PEM) used.
  • If a wrong CA is specified in CA_OCSP_URLS, an OCSP internal error is returned instead of an uncought exception.
  • Fix some edge cases for serial conversion in Python2. Some serials where converted with an “L” prefix in Python 2, because hex(0L) returns "0x0L".

1.6.3 (2017-10-21)

  • Fix various operations when USE_TZ is True.
  • Email addresses are now independently validated by validate_email. cryptography 2.1 no longer validates email addresses itself.
  • Require cryptography>=2.1. Older versions should not be broken, but the output changes breaking doctests, meaning they’re no longer tested either.
  • CA keys are no longer stored with colons in their filename, fixing init_ca under Windows.

1.6.2 (2017-07-18)

  • No longer require a strict cryptography version but only >=1.8. The previously pinned version is incompatible with Python 3.5.
  • Update requirements files to newest versions.
  • Update imports to django.urls.reverse so they are compatible with Django 2.0 and 1.8.
  • Make sure that check exit status is not ignored for code_quality.
  • Conform to new sorting restrictions for isort.

1.6.1 (2017-05-05)

  • Fix signing of wildcard certificates (thanks RedNixon).
  • Add new management commands import_ca and import_cert so users can import existing CAs and certificates.

1.6.0 (2017-04-21)

New features and improvements

  • Support CSRs in DER format when signing a certificate via sign_cert.
  • Support encrypting private keys of CAs with a password.
  • Support Django 1.11.
  • Allow creating CRLs of disabled CAs via dump_crl.
  • Validate DNSNames when parsing general names. This means that signing a certificate with CommonName that is not a valid domain name fails if it should also be added as subjectAltName (see --cn-in-san option).
  • When configuring OCSPView, the responder key and certificate are verified during configuration. An erroneous configuration thus throws an error on startup, not during runtime.
  • The testsuite now tests certificate signatures itself via pyOpenSSL, so an independent library is used for verification.


  • Fix the authorityKeyIdentifier extension when signing certificates with an intermediate CA.
  • Fix creation of intermediate CAs.

1.5.1 (2017-03-07)

  • Increase minimum field length of serial and common name fields.
  • Tests now call full_clean() for created models. SQLite (which is used for testing) does not enforce the max_length parameter.

1.5.0 (2017-03-05)

  • Completely remove pyOpenSSL and consistently use cryptography.
  • Due to the transitition to cryptography, some features have been removed:
    • The tlsfeature extension is no longer supported. It will be again once cryptography adds support.
    • The msCodeInd, msCodeCom, msCTLSign, msEFS values for the ExtendedKeyUsage extension are no longer supported. Support for these was largely academic anyway, so they most likely will not be added again.
    • TEXT is no longer a supported output format for dumping certificates.
  • The keyUsage extension is now marked as critical for certificate authorities.
  • Add the privilegeWithdrawn and aACompromise attributes for revocation lists.

1.4.1 (2017-02-26)

  • Update requirements.
  • Use Travis CI for continuous integration. django-ca is now tested with Python 2.7, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6 and nightly, using Django 1.8, 1.9 and 1.10.
  • Fix a few test errors for Django 1.8.
  • Examples now consistently use 4096 bit certificates.
  • Some functionality is now migrated to cryptography in the ongoing process to deprecate pyOpenSSL (which is no longer maintained).
  • OCSPView now supports directly passing the public key as bytes. As a consequence, a bad certificate is now only detected at runtime.

1.4.0 (2016-09-09)

  • Make sure that Child CAs never expire after their parents. If the user specifies an expiry after that of the parent, it is silently changed to the parents expiry.
  • Make sure that certificates never expire after their CAs. If the user specifies an expiry after that of the parent, throw an error.
  • Rename the --days parameter of the sign_cert command to --expires to match what we use for init_ca.
  • Improve help-output of --init-ca and --sign-cert by further grouping arguments into argument groups.
  • Add ability to add CRL-, OCSP- and Issuer-URLs when creating CAs using the --ca-* options.
  • Add support for the nameConstraints X509 extension when creating CAs. The option to the init_ca command is --name-constraint and can be given multiple times to indicate multiple constraints.
  • Add support for the tlsfeature extension, a.k.a. “TLS Must Staple”. Since OpenSSL 1.1 is required for this extension, support is currently totally untested.

1.3.0 (2016-07-09)

  • Add links for downloading the certificate in PEM/ASN format in the admin interface.
  • Add an extra chapter in documentation on how to create intermediate CAs.
  • Correctly set the issuer field when generating intermediate CAs.
  • fab init_demo now actually creates an intermediate CA.
  • Fix help text for the --parent parameter for init_ca.

1.2.2 (2016-06-30)

  • Rebuild to remove old migrations accidentally present in previous release.

1.2.1 (2016-06-06)

  • Add the CA_NOTIFICATION_DAYS setting so that watchers don’t receive too many emails.
  • Fix changing a certificate in the admin interface (only watchers can be changed at present).

1.2.0 (2016-06-05)

  • django-ca now provides a complete OCSP responder.
  • Various tests are now run with a pre-computed CA, making tests much fater and output more predictable.
  • Update lots of documentation.

1.1.1 (2016-06-05)

  • Fix the fab init_demo command.
  • Fix installation via install, fixes #2 and #4. Thanks to Jon McKenzie for the fixes!

1.1.0 (2016-05-08)

  • The subject given in the init_ca and sign_cert is now given in the same form that is frequently used by OpenSSL, “/C=AT/L=…”.
  • On the command line, both CAs and certificates can now be named either by their CommonName or with their serial. The serial can be given with only the first few letters as long as it’s unique, as it is matched as long as the serial starts with the given serial.
  • Expiry time of CRLs can now be specified in seconds. dump_crl now uses the --expires instead of the old --days parameter.
  • The admin interface now accounts for cases where some or all CAs are not useable because the private key is not accessable. Such a scenario might occur if the private keys are hosted on a different machine.
  • The app now provides a generic view to generate CRLs. See Use generic view to host a CRL for more information.
  • Fix the display of the default value of the –ca args.
  • Move this ChangeLog from a top-level .md file to this location.
  • Fix shell example when issueing certificates.

1.0.1 (2016-04-27)

  • Officially support Python2.7 again.
  • Make sure that certificate authorities cannot be removed via the web interface.

1.0.0 (2016-04-27)

This represents a massive new release (hence the big version jump). The project now has a new name (django-ca instead of just “certificate authority”) and is now installable via pip. Since versions prior to this release probably had no users (as it wasn’t advertised anywhere), it includes several incompatible changes.


  • This project now runs under the name django-ca instead of just “certificate authority”.
  • Move the git repository is now hosted at
  • This version now absolutely assumes Python3. Python2 is no longer supported.
  • Require Django 1.8 or later.
  • django-ca is now usable as a stand-alone project (via git) or as a reusable app (via pip).


  • The main app was renamed from certificate to django_ca. See below for how to upgrade. interface

  • commands are now renamed to be more specific:
    • init -> init_ca
    • sign -> sign_cert
    • list -> list_certs
    • revoke -> revoke_cert
    • crl -> dump_crl
    • view -> view_cert
    • watch -> notify_expiring_certs
    • watchers -> cert_watchers
  • Several new commands:
    • dump_ca to dump CA certificates.
    • dump_cert to dump certificates to a file.
    • dump_ocsp_index for an OCSP responder, dump_crl no longer outputs this file.
    • edit_ca to edit CA properties from the command line.
    • list_cas to list available CAs.
    • view_ca to view a CA.
  • Removed the remove command.
  • dump_{ca,cert,crl} can now output DER/ASN1 data to stdout.

0.2.1 (2015-05-24)

  • Signed certificates are valid five minutes in the past to account for possible clock skew.
  • Shell-scripts: Correctly pass quoted parameters to
  • Add documentation on how to test CRLs.
  • Improve support for OCSP.

0.2 (2015-02-08)

  • The watchers command now takes a serial, like any other command.
  • Reworked view command for more robustness.
    • Improve output of certificate extensions.
    • Add the -n/--no-pem option.
    • Add the -e/--extensions option to print all certificate extensions.
    • Make output clearer.
  • The sign command now has
    • a --key-usage option to override the keyUsage extended attribute.
    • a --ext-key-usage option to override the extendedKeyUsage extended attribute.
    • a --ocsp option to sign a certificate for an OCSP server.
  • The default extendedKeyUsage is now serverAuth, not clientAuth.
  • Update the remove command to take a serial.
  • Ensure restrictive file permissions when creating a CA.
  • Add requirements-dev.txt

0.1 (2015-02-07)

  • Initial release