Certificate authority management¶
django-ca supports managing multiple certificate authorities as well as child certificate authorities.
The command-line interface is the only way to create certificate authorities. It is obviously most important that the private keys are never exposed to any attacker, and any web interface would pose an unnecessary risk. Some details, like the x509 extensions used for signing certificates, can be configured using the web interface.
For the same reason, the private key of a certificate authority is stored on the filesystem and not in the database. The initial location of the private key is configured by the CA_DIR setting. This also means that you can run your django-ca on two hosts, where one host has the private key and only uses the command line, and one with the webinterface that can still be used to revoke certificates.
Index of commands¶
To manage certificate authorities, use the following manage.py commands:
|dump_ca||Write the CA certificate to a file.|
|edit_ca||Edit a certificate authority.|
|import_ca||Import an existing certificate authority.|
|init_ca||Create a new certificate authority.|
|list_cas||List all currently configured certificate authorities.|
|view_ca||View details of a certificate authority.|
Like all manage.py subcommands, you can run
manage.py <subcomand> -h to get a list of availabble
Create a new CA¶
You should be very careful when creating a new certificate authority, especially if it is used by a large number of clients. If you make a mistake here, it could make your CA unusable and you have to redistribute new public keys to all clients, which is usually a lot of work.
Please think carefully about how you want to run your CA: Do you want intermediate CAs? Do you want to use CRLs and/or run an OCSP responder?
pathlen attribute says how many levels of intermediate CAs can be used below a given CA. If present,
it is an integer attribute (>= 0) meaning how many intermediate CAs can be below this CA. If not present,
the number is unlimited. For a valid setup, all
pathlen attributes of all intermediate CAs must be
correct. Here is a typical (correct) example:
root # pathlen: 2 |- child_A # pathlen 1 |- child_A.1 # pathlen 0 |- child_B # pathlen 0
In this example, root and child_A can have intermediate CAs, while child_B and child_A.1 can not.
The default value for the
pathlen attribute is
0, meaning that any CA cannot have any intermediate
CAs. You can use the
--pathlen parameter to set a different value or the
--no-pathlen parameter if you
don’t want to set the attribute:
# Two sublevels of intermediate CAs: python manage.py init_ca --pathlen=2 ... # unlimited number of intermediate CAs: python manage.py init_ca --no-pathlen ...
Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs) are signed files that contain a list of all revoked certificates.
Certificates (including those for CAs) can contain pointers to CRLs, usually a single URL, in the
crlDistributionPoints extension. Clients that support this extension can query the URL and refuse to
establish a connection if the certificate is revoked.
Since a CRL has to be signed by the issuing CA, root CAs cannot sensibly contain a CRL: You could only revoke the root CA with it, and it would have to be signed by the (compromised) root CA.
django-ca supports adding CRLs to (intermediate) CAs as well as end-user certificates. The former cannot
be changed later, while the latter can be changed at any time for future certificates using the
subcommand or via the web interface.
If you decide to add a CRL to CAs/certificates, you must also provide the CRLs at the given URL. django-ca provides everything you need, please see Host a Certificate Revocation List (CRL) for more information.
For certificates to be signed by this CA, use the
python manage.py init_ca --ca-url http://ca.example.com/example.crl ...
To add a CRL url for an intermediate CA, use the
python manage.py init_ca \ --parent root --ca-url http://ca.example.com/root.crl ...
The Online Certificate Status Protocol or OCSP is a service (called “OCSP responder”) run by a certificate authority that allows clients to query for revoked certificates. It is an improvement over CRLs particulary for larger CAs because a full CRL can grow quite big.
The same restrictions as for CRLs apply: You cannot add a OCSP URL to a root CA, it runs via HTTP (not HTTPS) and if you decide to add such URLs, you also have to actually run that service, or clients will refuse to connect. django-ca includes a somewhat tested OCSP responder, see Run a OCSP responder for more information.
To add a OCSP URL to certificates to be signed by this CA, use the
python manage.py --ocsp-url http://ocsp.ca.example.com/example ...
To add a OCSP URL to intermediate CAs, use the
python manage.py init_ca \ --parent root \ --ca-ocsp-url http://ocsp.ca.example.com/root \ ...
NameConstraints are a little-used extension (see RFC 5280, section 22.214.171.124 that allows you to create CAs that are limited to issuing certificates for a particular set of addresses. The parsing of this syntax is quite complex, see e.g. this blog post for a good explanation.
This extension is marked as “critical”. Any client that does not understand this extension will refuse a connection.
To add name constraints to a CA, use the
--name-constraint option, which can be given multiple times.
Values are any valid name, see Names on the command-line for detailed documentation. Prefix the value with either
excluded, to add them to the Permitted or Excluded subtree:
python manage.py init_ca \ --name-constraint permitted,DNS:com --name-constraint permitted,DNS:net --name-constraint excluded,DNS:evil.com ...
This will restrict the CA to issuing certificates for .com and .net subdomains, except for evil.com, which obviously should never have a certificate (evil.net is good, though).
Here is a shell session that illustrates the respective manage.py commands:
$ python manage.py init_ca --pathlen=2 > --crl-url=http://ca.example.com/crl \ > --ocsp-url=http://ocsp.ca.example.com \ > --issuer-url=http://ca.example.com/ca.crt \ > TestCA /C=AT/L=Vienna/L=Vienna/O=Example/OU=ExampleUnit/CN=ca.example.com $ python manage.py list_cas BD:5B:AB:5B:A2:1C:49:0D:9A:B2:AA:BC:68:ED:ED:7D - TestCA $ python manage.py view_ca BD:5B:AB:5B:A2 ... * OCSP URL: http://ocsp.ca.example.com $ python manage.py edit_ca --ocsp-url=http://new-ocsp.ca.example.com \ > BD:5B:AB:5B:A2 $ python manage.py view_ca BD:5B:AB:5B:A2 ... * OCSP URL: http://new-ocsp.ca.example.com
Note that you can just use the start of a serial to identify the CA, as long as that still uniquely identifies the CA.
Create intermediate CAs¶
Intermediate CAs are created, just like normal CAs, using
manage.py init_ca. For intermediate
CAs to be valid, CAs however must have a correct
pathlen x509 extension. Its value is an
integer describing how many levels of intermediate CAs a CA may have. A
pathlen of “0” means
that a CA cannot have any intermediate CAs, if it is not present, a CA may have an infinite number
of intermediate CAs.
django-ca by default sets a
pathlen of “0”, as it aims to be secure by default.
pathlen attribute cannot be changed in hindsight (not without resigning the CA). If you
plan to create intermediate CAs, you have to consider this when creating the root CA.
So for example, if you want two levels of intermediate CAs, , you’d need the following
pathlen value is the minimum value, it could always be a larger number):
|1||example.com||2||Your root CA.|
|2||sub1.example.com||1||Your first intermediate CA, a sub-CA from (1).|
|3||sub2.example.com||0||A second intermediate CA, also a sub-CA from (1).|
|4||sub.sub1.example.com||0||An intermediate CA of (2).|
If in the above example, CA (1) had
pathlen of “1” or CA (2) had a
pathlen of “0”, CA (4)
would no longer be a valid CA.
By default, django-ca sets a
pathlen of 0, so CAs will not be able to have any intermediate
CAs. You can configure the value by passing
$ python manage.py init_ca --pathlen=2 ...
When creating a sub-ca, you must name its parent using the
$ python manage.py list_cas BD:5B:AB:5B:A2:1C:49:0D:9A:B2:AA:BC:68:ED:ED:7D - Root CA $ python manage.py init_ca --parent=BD:5B:AB:5B ...
Just like throughout the system, you can always just give the start of the serial, as long as it still is a unique identifier for the CA.