1.6.2 (2017-07-18)

  • No longer require a strict cryptography version but only >=1.8. The previously pinned version is incompatible with Python 3.5.
  • Update requirements files to newest versions.
  • Update imports to django.urls.reverse so they are compatible with Django 2.0 and 1.8.
  • Make sure that check exit status is not ignored for code_quality.
  • Conform to new sorting restrictions for isort.

1.6.1 (2017-05-05)

  • Fix signing of wildcard certificates (thanks RedNixon).
  • Add new management commands import_ca and import_cert so users can import existing CAs and certificates.

1.6.0 (2017-04-21)

New features and improvements

  • Support CSRs in DER format when signing a certificate via sign_cert.
  • Support encrypting private keys of CAs with a password.
  • Support Django 1.11.
  • Allow creating CRLs of disabled CAs via dump_crl.
  • Validate DNSNames when parsing general names. This means that signing a certificate with CommonName that is not a valid domain name fails if it should also be added as subjectAltName (see --cn-in-san option).
  • When configuring OCSPView, the responder key and certificate are verified during configuration. An erroneous configuration thus throws an error on startup, not during runtime.
  • The testsuite now tests certificate signatures itself via pyOpenSSL, so an independent library is used for verification.


  • Fix the authorityKeyIdentifier extension when signing certificates with an intermediate CA.
  • Fix creation of intermediate CAs.

1.5.1 (2017-03-07)

  • Increase minimum field length of serial and common name fields.
  • Tests now call full_clean() for created models. SQLite (which is used for testing) does not enforce the max_length parameter.

1.5.0 (2017-03-05)

  • Completely remove pyOpenSSL and consistently use cryptography.
  • Due to the transitition to cryptography, some features have been removed:
    • The tlsfeature extension is no longer supported. It will be again once cryptography adds support.
    • The msCodeInd, msCodeCom, msCTLSign, msEFS values for the ExtendedKeyUsage extension are no longer supported. Support for these was largely academic anyway, so they most likely will not be added again.
    • TEXT is no longer a supported output format for dumping certificates.
  • The keyUsage extension is now marked as critical for certificate authorities.
  • Add the privilegeWithdrawn and aACompromise attributes for revocation lists.

1.4.1 (2017-02-26)

  • Update requirements.
  • Use Travis CI for continuous integration. django-ca is now tested with Python 2.7, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6 and nightly, using Django 1.8, 1.9 and 1.10.
  • Fix a few test errors for Django 1.8.
  • Examples now consistently use 4096 bit certificates.
  • Some functionality is now migrated to cryptography in the ongoing process to deprecate pyOpenSSL (which is no longer maintained).
  • OCSPView now supports directly passing the public key as bytes. As a consequence, a bad certificate is now only detected at runtime.

1.4.0 (2016-09-09)

  • Make sure that Child CAs never expire after their parents. If the user specifies an expiry after that of the parent, it is silently changed to the parents expiry.
  • Make sure that certificates never expire after their CAs. If the user specifies an expiry after that of the parent, throw an error.
  • Rename the --days parameter of the sign_cert command to --expires to match what we use for init_ca.
  • Improve help-output of --init-ca and --sign-cert by further grouping arguments into argument groups.
  • Add ability to add CRL-, OCSP- and Issuer-URLs when creating CAs using the --ca-* options.
  • Add support for the nameConstraints X509 extension when creating CAs. The option to the init_ca command is --name-constraint and can be given multiple times to indicate multiple constraints.
  • Add support for the tlsfeature extension, a.k.a. “TLS Must Staple”. Since OpenSSL 1.1 is required for this extension, support is currently totally untested.

1.3.0 (2016-07-09)

  • Add links for downloading the certificate in PEM/ASN format in the admin interface.
  • Add an extra chapter in documentation on how to create intermediate CAs.
  • Correctly set the issuer field when generating intermediate CAs.
  • fab init_demo now actually creates an intermediate CA.
  • Fix help text for the --parent parameter for init_ca.

1.2.2 (2016-06-30)

  • Rebuild to remove old migrations accidentally present in previous release.

1.2.1 (2016-06-06)

  • Add the CA_NOTIFICATION_DAYS setting so that watchers don’t receive too many emails.
  • Fix changing a certificate in the admin interface (only watchers can be changed at present).

1.2.0 (2016-06-05)

  • django-ca now provides a complete OCSP responder.
  • Various tests are now run with a pre-computed CA, making tests much fater and output more predictable.
  • Update lots of documentation.

1.1.1 (2016-06-05)

  • Fix the fab init_demo command.
  • Fix installation via install, fixes #2 and #4. Thanks to Jon McKenzie for the fixes!

1.1.0 (2016-05-08)

  • The subject given in the init_ca and sign_cert is now given in the same form that is frequently used by OpenSSL, “/C=AT/L=...”.
  • On the command line, both CAs and certificates can now be named either by their CommonName or with their serial. The serial can be given with only the first few letters as long as it’s unique, as it is matched as long as the serial starts with the given serial.
  • Expiry time of CRLs can now be specified in seconds. dump_crl now uses the --expires instead of the old --days parameter.
  • The admin interface now accounts for cases where some or all CAs are not useable because the private key is not accessable. Such a scenario might occur if the private keys are hosted on a different machine.
  • The app now provides a generic view to generate CRLs. See Use generic view to host a CRL for more information.
  • Fix the display of the default value of the –ca args.
  • Move this ChangeLog from a top-level .md file to this location.
  • Fix shell example when issueing certificates.

1.0.1 (2016-04-27)

  • Officially support Python2.7 again.
  • Make sure that certificate authorities cannot be removed via the web interface.

1.0.0 (2016-04-27)

This represents a massive new release (hence the big version jump). The project now has a new name (django-ca instead of just “certificate authority”) and is now installable via pip. Since versions prior to this release probably had no users (as it wasn’t advertised anywhere), it includes several incompatible changes.


  • This project now runs under the name django-ca instead of just “certificate authority”.
  • Move the git repository is now hosted at
  • This version now absolutely assumes Python3. Python2 is no longer supported.
  • Require Django 1.8 or later.
  • django-ca is now usable as a stand-alone project (via git) or as a reusable app (via pip).


  • The main app was renamed from certificate to django_ca. See below for how to upgrade. interface

  • commands are now renamed to be more specific:
    • init -> init_ca
    • sign -> sign_cert
    • list -> list_certs
    • revoke -> revoke_cert
    • crl -> dump_crl
    • view -> view_cert
    • watch -> notify_expiring_certs
    • watchers -> cert_watchers
  • Several new commands:
    • dump_ca to dump CA certificates.
    • dump_cert to dump certificates to a file.
    • dump_ocsp_index for an OCSP responder, dump_crl no longer outputs this file.
    • edit_ca to edit CA properties from the command line.
    • list_cas to list available CAs.
    • view_ca to view a CA.
  • Removed the remove command.
  • dump_{ca,cert,crl} can now output DER/ASN1 data to stdout.

0.2.1 (2015-05-24)

  • Signed certificates are valid five minutes in the past to account for possible clock skew.
  • Shell-scripts: Correctly pass quoted parameters to
  • Add documentation on how to test CRLs.
  • Improve support for OCSP.

0.2 (2015-02-08)

  • The watchers command now takes a serial, like any other command.
  • Reworked view command for more robustness.
    • Improve output of certificate extensions.
    • Add the -n/--no-pem option.
    • Add the -e/--extensions option to print all certificate extensions.
    • Make output clearer.
  • The sign command now has
    • a --key-usage option to override the keyUsage extended attribute.
    • a --ext-key-usage option to override the extendedKeyUsage extended attribute.
    • a --ocsp option to sign a certificate for an OCSP server.
  • The default extendedKeyUsage is now serverAuth, not clientAuth.
  • Update the remove command to take a serial.
  • Ensure restrictive file permissions when creating a CA.
  • Add requirements-dev.txt

0.1 (2015-02-07)

  • Initial release